The Lithium Ion battery has been chosen as one of the best batteries for hybrid vehicles because of the power density, most power available from the weight and size of the battery.
However, charging the battery below 32 degrees Fahrenheit is a major problem. While other batteries can be charged in cold temperatures at reduced charge rates, the Lithium Ion battery currently used in most hybrid vehicles cannot be charged below freezing without damaging the battery.
The biggest problem with charging the Lithium Ion battery below freezing is that Lithium ends up being deposited on the internal anode of the battery, which significantly reduces the lifetime of the battery
In other words, don’t attempt to charge the battery when internal temperatures are below freezing. Contact a Heatron engineer about ways to maintain the temperature within operating ranges.
If you are designing products, whether hybrid cars, or other electronic products for use below freezing, you should contact a Heatron engineer who is an expert at designing heating elements and temperature controllers.
Especially for hybrid cars where a FAST charge is desirable not only environmental temperatures, but internal battery temperatures must be considered. Tenable fast-charging at all temperatures, some industrial batteries include a thermal blanket that heats the battery to an acceptable temperature; other chargers adjust the charge rate to prevailing temperatures. Consumer chargers do not have these provisions and users should make all attempts to only charge batteries at room temperatures.
As you design Lithium-ion batteries for applications that require extreme temperature ranges contact a Heatron engineer to help you develop the appropriate temperature control system for your battery.
Some battery temperature vs charge/discharge rates
|Battery Type||Charge Temperature||Discharge Temperature||Recommended Charge Paramaters|
|Lead Acid||-4°F to 122°F||-4°F to 122°F||Charge at 0.3 of full charge rate or less, below freezing.|
|NiCd, NiMH||32°F to 113°F||-4°F to 149°F||Charge at 0.1 of full charge rate below freezing, and at 0.3 of full charge rate from 0°C to 5°C|
|Li-ion||32°F to 113°F||-4°F to 140°F||Do not charge below freezing|
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